WHAT IS ANEMIA
Anemia is a condition that occurs when the number of red blood cells (RBCs) and the amount of hemoglobin found in the red blood cells drops below normal. Red blood cell and the hemoglobin contained within them are necessary to transport and deliver oxygen from the lungs to rest if the body. Without a sufficient supply of oxygen, many tissues and organs throughout the body can be adversely affected.Anemia-types cause-sign-symptoms below:
Anemia is a fairly common condition, affecting both men and women of all ages, races and groups. However, certain people have increased risk of developing anemia.
These include people with diets poor in iron and vitamins, chronic diseases such as kidney problem ,diabetes, cancer, inflammatory disease, a family history of inherited anemia, chronic infections such as TB(tuberculosis) or HIV, and those who have had significant blood loss from injury or surgery .
Also read this articles on: anemia
THE MAIN CAUSE OF ANEMIA INCLUDE:
- Loss of RBCs due to bleeding or to increased destruction of RBCs as in Hemolytic anemia
- Decreased production of RBCs by the bone marrow due to nutritional deficiency(e.g. Iron, B vitamin),bone marrow failure(aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome).Today will discuss anemia types and its symptoms
Some of the more common causes of anemia, especially those that are not typically associated with white blood cell and platelet are summarized in the table below
|Type of Anemia||Description||Examples of causes|
|Iron Deficiency||Deficiency of iron leads to decreased amount of hemoglobin; low levels of hemoglobin in turn to decreased production of normal RBCs||Blood loss; diet low in iron; poor absorption of iron|
|Pernicious Anemia and Vitamin B12 Deficiency||RBCs do not develop as they normally would because of lack of B vitamin(B12 and folate); leads to decreased production of RBCs||Lack of intrinsic factor(needed for B12 absorption); diet low in B vitamin; deceased absorption of B vitamin|
|Aplastic||Bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells; a life threatening condition||Cancer therapy, exposure to toxin, autoimmune disease, viral infections|
|Hemolytic||RBCs are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can replace them||Inherited causes such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia; other cause include transfusion of incompatible blood, autoimmune disease certain drugs(penicillin)|
|Anemia of chronic diseases||Various conditions over the long term can cause decreased production of RBCs||Kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, tuberculosis, HIV, Crohn disease, cancer and others|
There are many more conditions that can, for various reasons, result in some level of anemia, such as:
Bleeding- significant bleeding resulting from, for example trauma or surgery or from gastrointestinal bleeding occurring over time
- Leukemia(acute or chronic)
- Multiple Myeloma
- Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Below are:sign and symptoms of anemia
Signs and Symptoms
Though different types of anemia have different causes the signs and symptoms can be very similar. Mild or moderate forms of anemia may cause few, if any, symptoms.
Some of the most common symptoms are:
- General feeling of tiredness or weakness(fatigue)
- Lack of energy
- Pale skin(pallor)
Iron deficiency Anemia
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and it has many causes. Symptoms are related to the over decrease in the number of the red blood cells (RBCs) and the level of hemoglobin. If the iron deficiency anemia is mild to moderate, there may be no signs of symptoms.
Pernicious Anemia and other B vitamin deficiencies
Anemia resulting from vitamin B12 of folate deficiency are often referred to as “megaloblastic anemia” because red blood cells and the cells that make them are larger than normal.
Aplastic anemia is a rare disease caused which decrease in the number of all types of blood cells that the bone marrow produces
The different causes of Hemolytic Anemia fall into two main categories:
- Inherited forms in which a gene or genes are passed from one generation to the next that result in abnormal RBCs or hemoglobin
- Acquired forms in which some factor result in the early destruction of RBCs
Sickle cell Anemia is a disorder where the body makes abnormal hemoglobin.
Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder where there is a decrease in hemoglobin production that resulted in anemia and smaller red blood cells.
Other less common types of inherited forms of Hemolytic Anemia include:
- Inherited Hemolytic Anemia
- Acquired Hemolytic Anemia
Anemia caused by chronic diseases
Chronic illnesses is also a type of anemia which can cause anemia which, goes undetected until a routine test such as a Complete
Blood Count (CBC) reveals abnormal results. Some examples of chronic condition include:
- Kidney disease
- Anemia of chronic disease- Whenever there are is chronic disease that stimulate the body’s inflammatory response, the ability of the bone marrow to respond to erythropoietin is decreased. For example, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV or Tuberculosis(TB).